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The following states operate under the WHS Regulations: ACT, NSW, NT, QLD, SA, and TAS. These states require licenses for overhead cranes if the crane is:
Western Australia requires a license for operation if the crane is controlled from a:
Victoria requires a license for operation if the crane is:
Even for crane types that licence is not required, the operator should still be trained in the following competencies.
Competency units required for operating bridge and gantry cranes:
Conduct routine checks
Check controls and lifting gear
Shut down crane
Secure and transfer load
Conduct trial lift
The following link is for crane guidance material published by Safe Work Australia:
Two scenarios: 1) exercises judgment in the selection of slings, the weight of the load or its centre of gravity, 2) where there is a need to direct the bridge and gantry crane operator in the movement of the load or the load is out of sight of the operator.
A rigger is qualified to do dogging work.
Note: It is recommended that for bridge and gantry crane operation, the crane operator maintains line of sight with the load at all times.
Rigging means the use of mechanical load shifting equipment and associated gear to move, place or secure a load including plant, equipment or members of a building or structure and to ensure the stability of those members and for the setting up and dismantling of cranes and hoists, but does not include the setting up of a crane or hoist which only requires the positioning of integral outriggers or stabilisers;
Dogging means the application of slinging techniques, including the selection or inspection of lifting gear, or the directing of a crane or hoist operator in the movement of a load when the load is out of the operator's view.
In reality, most cranes are usually working on duties below their classification (for crane classification, refer to FAQ-Crane Design Specification). Since crane inspection frequency specified by manufacture or in the standards are based on crane classifications, for most cranes, record the crane usage (data logging) can benefit crane owners economically by extend the intervals between each inspection. Data logging records containing state of loading, duration of operation and number of load cycles can be used to determine a more accurate inspection interval and avoid excessive effort spend on crane inspection.
Data logging can also benefit the crane owner with improve efficiency of operation by providing operation data to assist in selecting the correct crane for the task, for example, if the crane is always operating at 20-30% of its rated capacity, maybe a crane with a lower capacity can be considered for the task.
Data logging can also provide an opportunity to look at operator competency, for example, if the data logging shows frequent overloading of the crane, one of the reasons can be the crane operator not familiar with the crane model or the crane operator is not competent to operate the crane, in this case, operator training can improve the operator competency and benefit the crane design life significantly.
Overloading happens when a crane lift a load/loads greater than the capacity specified in the manufacture’s rated capacity chart. Overloading a crane can cause severe damage to the crane structure.
Overloading can happen in the following scenarios:
Crane overloads can significantly shorten the structural life of a crane. The damage is not always immediately evident but can manifest itself by unexpected cracking of the structure some time into the future.
Recommended immediate actions following an overload,
Following crane isolation, have a competent person,
If the crane passes the above inspection, test all motions on the crane for functionality. Test the crane hoist brakes are functioning correctly and will hold the rated load capacity. Note, the competent person will need to sign off that the crane is fit to return to service. Any limitations the competent person places upon that condition, will need to be adhered to.
As note, the effect of the overload may not show immediately and only surface after a period of the crane returned to service.
To overcome this issue, it is recommended that further structural inspections of the crane are carried out following a short period after the crane’s return to service, say 24-48 hrs then say 1 week and another week following. If there is no evidence of damage, the normal maintenance and inspection regimes can be resumed.